Academic Articles (Week9)


The Oedipus Complex in the Contemporary Psychoanalysis

Original Reference:

Borovecki-Jakovljev S, Matacić S. The Oedipus Complex in the Contemporary Psychoanalysis Coll. Antropol.29 (2005)


This is an article gives different standpoints from psychological theories, try to find the answer of a place Oedipus Complex in contemporary psychoanalysis.

Oedipus was a character in Greek mythological. Oedipus unwittingly killed his father, Laius, and marries his mother, Jocasta. Austrian psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud firstly write the term ‘Oedipus complex’ in his book The Interpretation of Dreams. He thinks the children during their whole stages of grow up, which is start from infant until their puberty age. They have different kind of repression about the sexual relationship to their opposite sex parent, by unconscious behavior.


Freud is the founder of psychoanalysis theory. He thinks the infant boy has an instinctive love to his mother, because he can get food and protection from mother. But after 5-6 years old, oral and anal instinct is subsumed under genital domination. He begins to have a complex emotion toward to his father. He thinks his father will seize mother’s love from him. The boy get all the love from mother, but he is afraid of his father will punish him. Girls are in opposite, they have similar jealous toward their mother. Under the pressure between instinctive and rational, struggling to find a balance.


Jung accept and learn from Freud, they work together and to push psychoanalysis forward. But Jung not completely agree with Freud’s viewpoint, anyway Jung still has a big contribution to psychoanalysis. Jung use Anima and Animus these two characters in his theory. As a fetus, we don’s have distinguish about sex. But after we born, we immediately arranged a sexual ID. The society made us boy or girl. But inside of baby, the instinct still left. Anima is the manliness inside of women. The other hand, Animus is feminizing inside a man.


Melanie Klein thinks Oedipus Complex is early than Freud’s theory. The love toward opposite sex is start from several months after born. Around 3, 4 years old in the Phallic Stage is the strongest period. But this is a positive emotion that children try to build a positive attitude toward their parent avoid negative one.


In Mahler’s theory, child development takes place in different phases: Normal autistic phase, Normal symbiotic phase, Separation–individuation phase.


Kohut thinking the infant’s personality is from outside not from inside. When the parent’s bring up their baby as the way they want the baby to become, that is the motivation drive to built their personal which Kohut called Development of self psychology.


Some psychologist like Friedman has a different view about the beginning age of Oedipus complex. He thinks there is almost no child can solve oedipal conflict completely till the age of 6 or 7.


Authors also use some example from psychologist to explain their option. Like the example from Groen-Prakken: Shame is a result of feeling worthless in Oedipus psychical world, than to quilt. Children’s behavior like took out their eyes, has a symbolically meaning. “This is not a symbolic castration; neither it is a symbolic self-punishment for murdering his father. It is a symbolic rape which reflects the sadistic sexual impulses and hatred towards the women in Oedipus.”


By talking about different kind of Oedipus Complex which are supplement by other psychoanalyst. Author want to figure out what is the meaning and its position of Oedipus Complex in contemporary psychoanalysis.



What is the title and what does the title tell you about the paper?

This article is titled as The Oedipus Complex in the Contemporary Psychoanalysis. By the word Oedipus Complex it is obvious to know this article is talking about Freud’s Psychoanalysis theory, which is an classic theory in modern psychology. “Sigmund Freud, who coined the term ‘Oedipus complex’, believed that the Oedipus complex is a desire for the parent in both males and females; he deprecated the term ‘Electra complex’, which was introduced by Carl Gustav Jung in regard to the Oedipus complex manifested in young girls”[1].


Another key word in title is Contemporary Psychoanalysis. As we know the Psychoanalysis has an important also make a big dispute, because of its revolutionary and creative theory. Not every people agree with Freud’s opinion. Especially in contemporary psychology, it becomes more and more marginalized.


Who is the paper written by and do they seem credible to you?

This paper is written by Sanja Borovečki, we can search her name in Google Scholar to find her other Papers and Citations. Another author is called Stanislav Matačić. They both belong to Clinic for Psychological Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia. in 2005 when they writen this article.


This article is publishing in Collegium antropologicum, Vol.29 No.1 June 2005.


Does it have a helpful abstract? Give reasons for your answer.

It has a clear summary about this article.

A good abstract use to include these parts: Motivation – why do research, Problem Statement – list the question of the subject, Approach – how to find the answer, Results and Conclusions – give the answer. [2]

In this article:

Problem statement: Where is the place, and what is the meaning of the Oedipus complex in contemporary psychoanalysis?

Approach: review of different theoretical standpoints, according to meaning and place of the Oedipus complex in human development

Results & conclusion: it depends on the resolving of preoedipal conflicts. The conflicts of phallic phases of the psychosexual development are universal to all human being.


What did the author(s) do in their research, what research approach and what method(s) did they use?

This Article, Secondary Research is be used. “Secondary research (also known as desk research) involves the summary, collation and/or synthesis of existing research rather than primary research, in which data are collected from, for example, research subjects or experiments.”[3]

The authors based on Freud’s theory, then collect and analyze different psychologist’s standpoint about Oedipus Complex.

Jung is more focus on the conflicts between what the environment want human to be and what human want to be themselves. Many people criticize Freud’s research is mostly focus on boys but ignore girls. Jung was made a supplement in it: the Electra Complex, as a symmetric position in girls.


Authors not just make collection of different theories. In the second half of the paper, author also reference some article from other researchers, like Oedipus as a Narcissistic Patient which is H. Groen Prakkens’ article from 1998. It talked about Oedipus as a Narcissistic Patient. “At age of 2 or 2 and 1/2 little Oedipus is not well equipped to enter the next developmental stage of childhood, the phallic and Oedipal stage. His character was determined by a vital need to avoid narcissistic hurts and the accompanying shame.

At the end of the this paper, author try to make a conclusion and answer the questions she asked in the beginning of the paper — what is the place and meaning of Oedipus complex in contemporary psychoanalysis? Author’s think in 100 years, the psychoanalysis has gone further and deeper than Freud did. In recent years psychoanalytic interest has changed from phallic, genital, drive, oedipal to pregenital and preoedipa. The center of the figure of psychological development of children changed from father to mother. “In the contemporary psychoanalytic therapies, the analysis of the Oedipus Complex is of great importance. However, for sure, it is not enough if all of the preoedipal conflicts are not analyzed as well, because they lie in the basic inability to solve the Oedipus conflict.


Do you think the method(s) they used was appropriate to the question they were asking? Explain why or why not.

For this title The Oedipus Complex in the Contemporary Psychoanalysis I think the Secondary Research is a good way to introduce the progress of Psychoanalysis’s changing in its history. Every stage the new coming psychologist make new supplement to Oedipus Complex,

1.     Freud as founder of this theory, it’s like build the structure of Oedipus Complex.

2.     Jung make the First Splitting with Freud, he not just focus on the negative aspect, Jung try to use psychoanalysis to answer human being’s development questions.

3.     Melanie Klein and her Early Oedipus. Use her evidence to prove Oedipus Complex could happened earlier than we use to think.

4.     Georges Devereux and the Laius Complex. Devereux questioned the Oedipal positions as something inborn, almost biologically determined, and opens the field of transgene rational transmission of trauma and the resulting psychopathology.

5.     The Female Oedipus – Electra and Persephone. H. C. Halberstadt Freud and N. Kulish and D. Holzman, who substitute the Oedipus myth with myths about Persephone and Electra. Freud based his theory on his experiences with the neurotics. According to Halberstadt Freud’s opinion, girl is during her whole life connected with the first object of love, mother, although these connections are often ambivalent.

All those theories they originated from same one but they express different standpoint. The authors have no plan to create a new theory or myth, but analyze the exist theories and figure out what are their position in Contemporary Psychoanalysis. That’s why choose the Secondary Research.


What results does the paper report?

In conclusion, the author think the conflicts in phallic phases in human being’s development, no matter how we call them Electra, Persephone or Oedipus. It’s not important, they all based on basic one. We have to analysis of all the premedical conflicts in contemporary psychoanalytic therapies to solve the Oedipus conflict.


Was the paper worth reading? Give reasons for your answer.

Well, it’s quite useful for me to read this paper. Because I am very interesting in psychoanalyze area. This paper is not just talking about the classic theory like Freud or Jung’s. It also writes many other researches from famous psychologist who I never read them before.

Like in contemporary psychoanalytic, central of figure in children’ development has been changed from father to mother. And compare with the classic research, the phase has changed from phallic, genital to pregenital, preoedipal.

But this article also has its limitation. As we know the psychoanalytic is not the mainstream in current psychology’s research any more. Because its famous assumptions like Oedipus or Electra complex are different to be reified clinically.

Also the contemporary anatomy science is not support Freud’s theory. “Behaviorists, humanists, and existentialists all believe that the motivations and problems that can be attributed to the unconscious are much fewer than Freud thought, and the unconscious is not the great churning cauldron of activity he made it out to be.” [4]


Do you believe the results/findings or the paper? Give reasons for your answer.

I agree with Sofe Ahmed’s opinion [4], he try to proof that Sigmund’s theory has no anatomy’s support.

I also agree with many people thinks Freud is always think early age’s experience is too power but he ignore the grow up’s experience for life.[5] ”Early influences are very powerful, but that does not mean that later experiences are inconsequential. When individuals grow up, their parents usually continue to act in ways that recapitulate social interactional sequences from the patient’s early life experience. This parental behavior automatically both cues and reinforces old but engrained role relationship schemata

But I also think what Sigmund writes in his famous book <The Interpretation of Dreams> is also brilliant. We just cannot verify it by modern scientific way at the moment. In the other hand, we cannot falsify Sigmund’s theory by psychology’s way.

In this article, author is analyzing psychologist’s theory and using the psychology way to research. So we need to use psychology way to thinking.


What did you learn from reading the paper?

I learned a lot of history of psychoanalytic. This article clearly shows the variety explain and supplement of Oedipus Complex, although they use different name, like Early Oedipus, Persephone or Electra. Some psychologist’s reference in this paper like Groen Prakkens(1998) and Friedman(1986) is not far from nowadays’ research.



[1] Wikipedia, Oedipus Complex

[2] Philip Koopman, How to Write an Abstract, 1997

[3] Wikipedia, Secondary research

[4] Sofe Ahmed, Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory Oedipus complex: A critical study with reference to D. H. Lawrence’s “Sons and Lovers”, 2012

[5] David M. Allen M.D. Where Psychoanalysts Went Wrong (2013)


Search for academic articles(WEEK 7)

The theme of this week’s blog is to find two academic articles and to explain why they have the function of academic papers .And in accordance with the following requirements to determine whether it is academic articles:

  • the title
  • the authors (usually with an email address and affiliation)
  • the abstract
  • the introduction
  • a review of other papers relevant to the topic ( a literature review)
  • a description of what the research was and what the researchers did
  • the results of what they did
  • a discussion about what the results mean
  • a conclusion
  • a list of references

Clare explained a lot of her thoughts on academic papers, so I found  two articles judge whether it belongs to academic articles.


Web design papers

Title and author(s) of the article: Web design papers by Ju  Liu    , Hong jia , Ping Wang , Haipeng Liu ,Jing li    Five Chinese IT teachers of different universities.


APA reference:      doi :  Web design and production, 47 (3) 45-48  Wei Zhang, Jia fang .

how you found the article and what keywords you used: I used Baidu’s search engine .

what  kind of article  it  is : Journal paper in Academic magazine website on June 2014.

All the reasons that you think it is not article:

This article is published in an academic magazine that is not formal web design, it has enough pages, but the reference is too small and very informal. So I think this is not a formal academic paper, but once again a relatively academic article.And most of the authors are not from the very formal academic department, they are mostly ordinary teachers. This article is more for teaching materials.


Are you interested in properly reading the article or not : No, Because this article is no special new ideas, just as ordinary textbooks, I prefer to read novel articles, rather than the general teaching materials. And I think a lot of knowledge about web design is not very strict, so I think this article did not help me much.And I am now interested in the design of the article on the page, on the one hand because I have WEB courses and need to complete the assignment   and I really want to learn about web design.


Analysis of Computer Network Data Communication and Switching Technology

Title and author(s) of the article: Analysis of Computer Network Data Communication and Switching Technology by  Lulu Zhang , a  Chinese  computer teacher .

APA reference:

[1] Li Wensheng. Modern data communication in the exchange of technology analysis [J]. Digital Technology and Applications, 2015 (7): 36.
[2] Qin Changqian. Data communication technology in computer network [J]. Digital Technology and Application, 2015 (3): 20-20.
[3] Song Tongqing, jungle, Lu Baize, et al. Data communication technology in computer network [J]. Digital Technology and Application, 2015 (12): 48-48.
[4] Luo and Xin. Big data age computer remote network communication technology innovation application [J]. Technology and market, 2016,23 (7): 190-190.
[5] Zhang Cheng. Communication data cross technology in the computer network application [J]. Electronic world, 2014 (18): 280-280. doi :
how you found the article and what keywords you used:I used the academic magazine website database search engine search keywords keyword computer data exchange technology.

All the reasons that you think it is article:

The structure of this article is in line with the requirements of the academic paper, and the reference is very formal and enough pages. The other parts are also very formal, such as abstract, introduction, literature. The most important thing is that this is a Peer reviewed article.


Are you interested in properly reading the article or not : Yes, this paper   describes in detail the application of computer network data exchange technology and the latest developments. Although I have little knowledge of this technology, but this article is not very difficult to understand, it is very clear to write a variety of information exchange, I feel I can get some useful knowledge, so I am very interested in reading.



WEEK5 What is credible research?

This week we list a lot of sources of information in the classroom, and let us rate these sources of information , the high number represents the higher the credibility of the information source and more popular.Column 14 is the number given by me. The highest score in this table is Google search, indicating that Google search is the most popular and people generally think very credible.


I think there are two ways to get the desired information, divided into their own practice to explore and from a variety of channels to get people to sum up the theory.We often use these two methods together to study things,then we started discussing two sources we can consider credible sources for research.

Experimental research:

Experimental research is the most common practice explore,Experimental research is often to prove or refute some of the theory, we do the experimental study is usually designed to include a lot of simple variables and invariants, the beginning we need to do some guess, and then change the variables to explore different results to prove or refute Our guess. The more the number of experiments, the more accurate the results we get,

The biggest limitation of experimental research is that the practical scope is too small. We can only prove some very simple theories. If we want to prove some professional theories, we need to spend a lot of time and equipment to prepare the experiment because the experiment process is very complicated.

But experimental studies can be repeated many times, which is very beneficial for us to get the right results. Experimental research is also the most effective way to directly prove and refute our guess.


Focus groups:

In addition to our personal search for theoretical knowledge to learn things, Focus groups is the most common theoretical research method.Usually a random or selective composition of a diverse group, and then get a research theme, the group members on the subject to find a variety of information, and finally we discuss and exchange their own ideas.


The biggest advantage of the focus group is to let everyone involved, and then we try to exchange their own ideas, which is conducive to get more reliable conclusions. Because many times if they have a wrong understanding of the subject of the study, we usually do not correct their own mistakes, so the focus group members can guide you to get the correct conclusion.


However, the focus of the group is often the case of a person led the idea of this group, and ultimately the other team members did not play any role.Finally, it is the result of a person’s thinking becoming a collective think.This is often the case when the discussion is too little or the individual’s character and ability.


The above is my two most common examples of practical research and theoretical research.I still think that practical exploration is the most credible source of information, although we can experiment to prove that very little guess, because almost all of the world’s scientific theory is based on practical research on the basis , if there can not be experimentally proved that these theories Always just guess.In fact, I also think that most of the information we get from the book is still very credible, although some of the errors in the book may be because the publication time is too long to come and update. However, many of the information written on the Internet is not credible, because they may only write their own no proof of the idea or with the purpose of writing a lot of error messages, such as blog. So I still need to distinguish between trusted and untrustworthy information on the network.




WEEK 5 various sources of information

In this Wednesday class, our course discusses the subject of studying various sources of information. The beginning is mainly around these seven questions:

    • post the URL, e.g. http://
    • the search terms you used,
    • how you found it (e.g. Google search or followed link from wikipedia)
    • who wrote/created it
    • when it was written/created/recorded/published
    • what kind of ‘publication’ it is (e.g. news item, youtube video, white paper)
    • how  ‘credible (believable)’  you think it is  – include your reasons

I think these seven questions are a detailed explanation of the source of information and reference to better help us to determine the reliability of the information.

For example, I choose today’s theme virtualisation technology as my research object today. Honestly, my first reaction  is going to GOOGLE or Baidu   search related information to approximate understanding of virtualisation technology. Because I think GOOGLE search engine is the most convenient and fastest way to query information, there is one thing that I think Wikipedia is extremely high credibility, the biggest shortcomings of the search engine may be insufficient information, you may only from Wikipedia has some simple theory and definition, most of the details you want to know or the operating information can not be found from Wikipedia found.So I first use GOOGLE to approximate the search I think about the reliable information and make a detailed source of information.


A simple search for the VR on the Wikipedia, with the knowledge I get in accordance with the previous five questions in turn answer:
2. what is virtualisation technology ?
3. Google search or followed link from Wikipedia.
4.  A lot of  different people’s summary and screening.
5. This page was last modified on 21 March 2017, at 09:26.
6 . I think Wikipedia is very credible, Because Wikipedia is a very convincing and credible source of information. While everyone can edit the information on Wikipedia, there will be occasional errors, but there will be more people to help Wikipedia correct the error, because Wikipedia information is updated almost every day, so the error is generally stay In Wikipedia’s time is very short, and with a simple review and supervision, only some controversial information will be disputed, because the objective truth may not know and can not prove. Will eventually screen out the majority of people think that the most credible information on Wikipedia.
Although I usually use search engines and Wikipedia to study or learn most things, but the search engine to give the information is still too small, but the credibility of the various sources of information should be the highest. Most people begin to study the stranger first step is generally first from Wikipedia,because Wikipedia is basically no error, although we may only get a definition.So we need to access information through a variety of channels, these methods, including their own experiences and from others in the discussion, although a lot of information may not be high credibility, the amount of information is still great, it can help us successfully study and learn What you really want.


WEEK4 Burning Questions

This week, we started preparing for assingment3, and now I need to choose the IT project I am interested in as the theme of my assingment3, so I think about the IT project I want to study based on my tutor’s question. we did this through a warmup exercise, answering these sentences:

The IT area/subject I have most enjoyed is learning about systems analysis and design, in particular the new development methodologies that can be utilized instead of SSADM and OOSAD.

The IT area/subject I least enjoyed is networking as I find it very frustrating.

The IT area/subject I was most interested in is systems analysis and design methodology.

The one IT thing I never want to do again is developing 2D game in the Unity game engine. (stay away Automated testing tools automate functionality and regression testing. Regression testing is particularly useful for established software development projects where developers are submitting patches which alter the existing behaviour or fix an existing bug, but it can also be used for functionality testing for feature enhancements.

I would like to do research and do something. Specifically I would like to investigate what automated testing tools are available and what their pros and cons are, and then I would like to perform primary research on the identified automated testing tools by seeing how effective and reliable they are in automating the testing according to the test plans.

I will also look at the tutorials from these sites to understand the automated test, because this is only a little bit of my initial understanding, I have not studied this theme, I may be interested in the curiosity. So I have a lot of research work to do, if you really think this theme is not for me, I will be in the final project for other themes.



RES701 week 4 Ontology and epistemology .

Ontology is a conceptual modeling tool that describes the information system at the knowledge level. Ontology can improve research efficiency in many computer fields, such as  information retrieval and digital library. Epistemology is a philosophical theory that explores the nature and origin of knowledge. In the process of studying things, the use of Epistemology to better understand the nature of things, which is conducive to research.
I think that ontology and epistemology are a mutually reinforcing relationship in the study of things, the combination of the two can better help you see the nature of things.
Honestly, these two philosophical theories are still difficult to understand and use, but we still need to take the time to think about these theories, it will be very helpful for us to research things.

In ontology there are two sub-domains:

  • Ontological materialism: This is the belief that physical forces and objects are more real than a non-observable entity like the human mind. In other words, even if there is no human to observe them physical forces like sunlight exist.
  • Ontological idealism: This is the belief that non-observable entities like the human mind are more real than physical forces and objects. In other words reality is based in peoples minds.


Having a science based background here is a example of how ontology can be applied that makes sense to me.

Every organism in the world has a phenotype and a genotype. Simply put phenotype’s are observable characteristics in an organism, that might be fur colour, or body size. Whereas a genotype is the genetic material that actually controls the phenotype.

Is a phenotype more real than a genotype? Well until the last few years genotypes could not actually be observed and so the answer would have been yes. However now with technological advances allowing humans to decode the organisms genomes (the human genome was first decoded in 2001) we can see both the genotype and phenotype.



(“Epistemology – Wikipedia,” 2017)

To ensure that our belief and justification of our knowledge is solidly based we have to align it with the related concept of skepticism. Skepticism is basically the devils advocate making us question our knowledge to make sure we can actually class it as knowledge, i.e. does it meet the three criteria: truth, belief, justification.

In other words I see skepticism as the gate keeper ensuring everything we think of a knowledge is actually valid.

In general, I think these two philosophical ideas are very difficult to understand me, may also be very difficult for most people to understand, but I believe that these two philosophy in my research and school process can play some help.

Initial thoughts on research

First of all, I think research is a process of thinking about new information, which is a process of finding problems and solving problems. This is a very common and abstract process.

Effective research is very important because many ineffective research may lead you get the wrong conclusion. Effective research must come from a lot of sources of information, and we need to compare and think about the information from different sources so that we can get a more objective and accurate result. We also need to make a critical analysis of the conclusions of the research, we get what can be effective research.

  • Do you think you will ever need research skills?

Honestly, I am learning how to complete my software development course, the software profession requires me to complete a lot of programs even the complete APP. So I will encounter a lot of questions about software or code. I really need to study the skills, which I can effectively solve the software problem.

In fact, research skills  to improve the efficiency of solving problems,For example, I learned the SDV701 last task last semester, even now I still have many question about difficult assignment , such as why the code can not achieve the function, because I lack the efficient research skills, so I spent too much time to do invalid research, and then the final question has not yet solved even get more problems.

Although this is a disappointment, because I spent a lot of time but did not solve the problem. But research skills are a long-term training process. I need to slowly improve the efficiency of solving problems from a lot of inefficient research, and I think it is also a process of IT technology and IT knowledge accumulation.

  • What do you think a research journal is and who is it written for?

I think the research journal is a record of many of our thinking about various things, including what we are interested thing, ,I think that research journals should still be on the thinking and practice of each lesson, which is also a place to practice research techniques in research journals.

Of course, I think the most important thing in research journals is to prove that I am learning, To be honest, I am not a very active person. So I think the research journal is a let me share my  thinking with Clare and record what I have done for these ideas and let Clare see my progress in the research process. This is an important process for my software course. Because I really want to learn more and successfully complete the software course.

We had a class discussion about what good and useful features to include in our blogs, and   I also combined assignment 1 score requirements should be included in the blogs:

Review your previous postings
Record your thoughts
Contains useful information in journals.
Search function
Provide links to valid sources of information
Regularly updated
Easy to navigate and read

Number of blogs

  • What is plagiarism?                                                                                                                               I think it is very popular understanding is the practice of Ctrl + V, has not marked the information reference. I think this is a very unethical behavior, because it is about the integrity of the problem. More important things do not help your study and research.
  • Why is it important to avoid it?                                                                                                                   I think from the character point of view this is a disgraceful thing, because it is dishonest performance, and even cause a lot of people despise.   As well as from the practical point of view this may make your academic failure, because the basic all schools are very focused on plagiarism. So even if I really do not even a lot of things will fail some courses, I will not plagiarism.                                                                                                        

Additional : This is my first start of the new blog, I compared the last semester of the blog, I still think my last semester of the attitude is a little perfunctory. So I still want to be passionate and enjoy the research journals, although I have lack of  many research skills and  basis . I also look forward to you can put some suggestions on my blog content, I will enjoy this problem-solving process.I hope it is a lucky and enjoy  semester . Thank for reading .🙂